The temporal resolution of a single neuron depends on the synaptic
firing-duration and the post synatic recovery time. The electrical
spikes produced by individual neurons lasts about 100 hundred
milli-seconds, but the temporal resolution of a neuron is usually
more than twice this long.
The synapse  of an auditory neuron is show below.
(A) Spike counts for 25 neurons over 40 trails with a mean
firing rate of 400 hz. The stimulus occurs from 0 to 20 ms.
(B) Single postsynaptic neuron's action potential.
Bandpass coincidence detection duration tuning.
from: Computational Models of Millisecond Level Duration Tuning
in Neural Circuits, Brandon Aubie, Suzanna Becker, and Paul A. Faure 
In the bandpass coincidence detection model, the duration tuned neuron, DTN,
responds only when the stimulus results in the production of spikes in the
ON cells and synapses from the ON-delay and OFF cells coincide. SI are the
sustained inhibitory cells. The excitatory synapses are connected
with solid lines, and inhibitory ones with dashed lines with connection
Computational Models of Millisecond Level Duration Tuning in Neural Circuits,
Brandon Aubie, Suzanna Becker, and Paul A. Faure,
Journal of Neuroscience, July 22, 2009, 29(29):9255-9270